InDeWaG demonstrational pavilion in Bulgaria
InDeWaG project aims at bringing the water flow glazing (WFG) technology into industrial ripeness. One of the main milestones towards that goal is the construction of a pavilion with façades consisting of WFG elements. For that purpose InDeWaG partners have designed a pavilion that will serve as demonstrator for this new technology. It is shaped like a glass box with a square plan measuring 7.24 meters by 7.24 meters. The glass envelope is composed of WFG modules on the East, West and South façade, while the North façade will be opaque. The roof, floor and north facade are well insulated and will contribute to the low energy requirements of the pavilion, which is designed to achieve nearly zero energy building standard according to the Bulgarian legislation. The transparent facade elements are with a due East, West or South orientation at 3.00 m height from the floor to the ceiling.
The glazing units developed within the InDeWaG project and installed in the pavilion use circulating water in the chamber between the glass panes to capture solar radiation and transport the generated heat through a pipe system for different purposes such as heating, preheating, domestic hot water, storage or dissipation of excess energy. Via a circulation of heated or cooled water within the glass chamber in the window the whole façade may act as either a heating or cooling unit.
Inside the demonstrator the space will be divided by interior partition walls also made of glazing elements with circulating water. The temperature of the fluid inside them will be regulated and they will be used as radiant cooling or heating devices providing the conditioning of the inner space. The pavilion itself is meant to be a place for meetings, workshops and seminars as well as a demonstrational pavilion. It will be equipped with a monitoring system, which will show in real time the behavior of the WFG and the energy management system.
The monitoring will include measurements of energy gains and demand during the whole year, validation by means of real data of mathematical models for internal solar heat distribution, validation of nearly zero energy strategy based on generation of electric energy by photovoltaic panels. The pavilion includes installation of on-site energy generation plant (roof-top photovoltaics), heat pump and energy management system. The Heating Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) system consists of a primary circulation circuit between the heat pump and the façade/partition wall elements and a secondary circuit inside each WFG element. The primary circuit transports energy from the heat pump to each WFG element. According to the current demands the heat pump is responsible for both – heating and cooling purposes. Since there is no seasonal heat storage available, energy surplus from the WFG is measured and dissipated. In the same manner, periods of energy demand are measured and the difference between surplus and shortage provide the results for the final annual energy balance.
The pavilion is planned to achieve nearly Zero Energy Building standard according to the Bulgarian definition, where the InDeWaG facades shall have main contribution. The demonstrator will be constructed in the campus of the Bulgarian Academy of Science (BAS) located in Sofia, Mladost region. Expected opening is planned for the spring of 2018. The monitoring and operation of the pavilion will be the responsibility of the Central Laboratory for Solar Energy and New Energy Sources (CL SENES), one of InDeWaG’s project partners.
InDeWaG demonstrator in Spain
The approach of InDeWaG project is to enable maximum use of daylight by a transparent glass facade and at the same time meet nearly zero energy performance. The main objective of the Spanish demonstrator is to validate the strategy of "energy rejection" through a CoolGlass envelope in order to achieve nZEB. CoolGlass is a triple glazing using highly reflective coating (Xtreme 60.28) deposited on the inner surface of the outermost glass pane aiming at minimizing the energy absorption. The concept of CoolGlass is to eliminate internal heat loads by circulating cool water through the water chamber facing indoors. This cool isothermal envelope allows insulating the building from outer climate conditions.
The demonstrator is an autonomous mobile prototype consisting of a steel tube structure of dimensions 1.5m x 1m, mounted on rotating wheels with brake and anti-tip buttress. Three of its facades, the floor and the roof are formed by opaque enclosures made of sandwich panel (aluminum sheet + 100mm of extruded polystyrene insulation). The main façade is composed of two glazings: Reference glazing (1x0.5m) and CoolGlass (1x0.5m), connected to its corresponding circulator.
As it is shown in the figure, the main strategy of this mock up is to reject solar energy by means of the CoolGlass module and achieve high levels of comfort in the interior of the cabin by an autonomous primary circuit:
- For cooling down the interior of the cabin, the peltier cooling device (powered by a battery charged by the PV panel) will serve cool water to the secondary circuit.
- For heating the interior of the cabin, an electric resistance wrapped around the circulator (powered by a battery charged by the PV panel) will provide hot water to the secondary circuit.
The main objectives of the Spanish demonstrator are:
- To evaluate differences between isolated glazing and glazing integrated in an insulated room.
- Validation by means of real data of mathematical models for internal solar heat distribution.
- Measurements for energy demand during the whole year. -
- Comparison of thermal performances between the Reference Glazing and the CoolGlass Module.
- Validation of nearly zero energy strategy based on a Peltier Cooler device and electric resistance powered by photovoltaic panels.
- Overheating evaluation of different surface finishes: White box and black box.
In an interview, published by El Media, architect Dimitar Paskalev (Architectonika) gave an insight about the innovative technology of fluid flow glazing and its application in façade building. He states that the enormous effect of this technology is reducing the energy consumption in a high-rise and office buildings, where maximum daylight utilization is ensured through the glass façade. He explained that Architectonika, along with organizations from Bulgaria, Germany and Spain participate in a Public-Private Partnership under the Horizon 2020 Programme. The EU funded project is InDeWaG, and a Demonstration pavilion with the innovative water flow glazing façade will be set-up in Bulgaria.
The article is available only in Bulgarian HERE.